Ing. Salih CAVKIC
Paris nor Brussels!
We want to live in peace with all
regardless of their religion, color and origin.
Therefore, we condemn any
kind of terrorism!
Ne više Pariz ni Brisel!
Mi želimo živjeti u miru sa svim našim
bez obzira koje su vjere, boje kože i porijekla.
Zato mi osuđujemo svaku vrstu terorizma!
Prof. dr. Murray Hunter
University Malaysia Perlis
Years to Trade Economic Independence for Political Sovereignty -
Aleš Debeljak +
Defense of Cross-Fertilization: Europe and Its Identity
Contradictions - Aleš Debeljak
ALEŠ DEBELJAK - ABECEDA DJETINJSTVA
ALEŠ DEBEJAK - INTERVJU; PROSVJEDI, POEZIJA, DRŽAVA
Rattana Lao holds a doctorate in Comparative and International
Education from Teachers College, Columbia University and is currently teaching in Bangkok.
Director of Middle-East and Balkan Studies (IFIMES) in Ljubljana, Slovenia
Rakesh Krishnan Simha
Géométrie variable of a love triangle – India, Russia and the US
Amna Whiston is a London-based writer specialising in moral philosophy. As a
PhD candidate at Reading University, UK, her main research interests are in ethics, rationality, and moral psychology.
Eirini Patsea is a Guest Editor in Modern Diplomacy, and
specialist in Cultural Diplomacy and Faith-based Mediation.
Can we trust the government to do the right thing, are they really
care about essential things such as environmental conditions and
education in our life?
Univ. prof. Dubravko Lovrenović is one of the leading European Medievalist specialized in the Balkans, pre-modern and modern political history.
Postgraduate researcher in International Relations and Diplomacy at the Geneva-based UMEF University
professor of IT law and EU law at Banja Luka College,
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Studied in Belgrade (Political Science) and in Moscow (Plekhanov’s IBS). Currently, a post-doctoral researcher at the Kent University in Brussels (Intl. Relations). Specialist for the
MENA-Balkans frozen and controlled conflicts.
Dr. Swaleha Sindhi is
Assistant Professor in the Department of Educational Administration, the Maharaja Sayajirao University of
Baroda, India. Decorated educational practitioner Dr. Sindhi is a frequent columnist on related topics, too. She is the Vice President
of Indian Ocean Comparative Education Society (IOCES). Contact:
It is an Ankara-based
journalist and notable author.
She is engaged with the leading Turkish dailies and weeklies for
nearly three decades as a columnist, intervieweer and editor.
Her words are prolifically published and quoted in Turkish,
French an English.
By İLNUR ÇEVIK
Modified from the original: They killed 1 Saddam and created 1,000 others (Daily Sabah)
Aine O'Mahony has a bachelor in Law and Political Science at
the Catholic Institute of Paris and is currently a master's student
of Leiden University in the International Studies programme.Contact:
Elodie Pichon has a
bachelor in Law and Political Science at the Catholic Institute of
Paris and is currently doing a MA in Geopolitics, territory and
Security at King's College London. Contact :
a MA candidate of the George
Washington University, Elliott School of International Affairs. Her
research focus is on cross-Pacific security and Asian studies,
particularly on the Sino-U.S. relations and on the foreign policy
and politics of these two.
Born in Chile and raised in Rome, Alessandro
Cipri has just finished his postgraduate studies at the department
of War Studies of King's College London, graduating with distinction
from the Master's Degree in "Intelligence and International
Security". Having served in the Italian Army's "Alpini" mountain
troops, he has a keen interest in national security, military
strategy, insurgency theory, and terrorism studies. His Master's
dissertation was on the impact of drug trafficking on the evolution
of the Colombian FARC.
Ms. Lingbo ZHAO
is a candidate of the Hong Kong Baptist
University, Department of Government and International Studies. Her
research interest includes Sino-world, Asia and cross-Pacific.
Hannes Grassegger and Mikael Krogerus are investigative
journalists attached to the Swiss-based Das Magazin specialized
Hannes Grassegger and Mikael Krogerus are investigative journalists attached to the Swiss-based Das Magazin
Ms. Elodie Pichon, Research Fellow of the IFIMES Institute, DeSSA Department. This native Parisian is a Master in Geopolitics,
Territory and Security from the King’s College, London, UK.
Ambassador Muhamed Sacirbey currently lectures on Digital-Diplomacy. "Mo"
has benefited from a diverse career in investment banking & diplomacy, but
his passion has been the new avenues of communication. He was Bosnia &
Herzegovina's first Ambassador to the United Nations, Agent to the
International Court of Justice, Foreign Minister & Signatory of the Rome
Statute establishing the International Criminal Court. He also played
American football opting for a scholarship to Tulane University in New
Orleans after being admitted to Harvard, oh well!!
Amanda Janoo is an Alternative
Economic Policy Adviser to governments and development
organizations. Graduate from Cambridge University with an MPhil in
Development Studies, Amanda worked at the United Nations Industrial
Development Organization (UNIDO) supporting government's with
evidence-based industrial policy design for inclusive and
sustainable growth. Her research focus is on the relationship
between international trade and employment generation. She has
worked throughout Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa promoting greater
economic self-determination and empowerment.
Michael dr. Logies,
The writer, editor-in-chief of
The Jakarta Post, took part
in the Bali Civil Society and Media Forum, organized by the
Institute for Peace and Democracy and the Press Council, on Dec.5-6.
Bellevrat is the WEO Energy Analysts
Kira West is the WEO Energy Analysts
Dutch - Nederlands
French - Français
German - Deutsch
Is Earth the Largest Garbage Dump in
Robert J. Burrowes
Is Earth the largest garbage dump in the Universe? I
don’t know. But it’s a safe bet that Earth would be a contender were
such a competition to be held. Let me explain why.
To start, just listing the types of rubbish generated
by humans or the locations into which each of these is dumped is a
staggering task beyond the scope of one article. Nevertheless, I
will give you a reasonably comprehensive summary of the types of
garbage being generated (focusing particularly on those that are
less well known), the locations into which the garbage is being
dumped and some indication of what is being done about it and what
you can do too.
But before doing so, it is worth highlighting just
why this is such a problem, prompting the United Nations Environment
Programme to publish this recent report: ‘Towards
a pollution-free planet’.
As noted by Baher Kamal in his commentary on this
study: ‘Though some forms of pollution have been reduced as
technologies and management strategies have advanced, approximately
19 million premature deaths are estimated to occur annually as a
result of the way societies use natural resources and impact the
environment to support production and consumption.’ See ‘Desperate
Need to Halt “World’s Largest Killer” – Pollution’ and ‘Once
Upon a Time a Planet… First part. Pollution, the world’s largest
And that is just the cost in human lives.
So what are the main types of pollution and where do
they end up?
The garbage, otherwise labelled ‘pollution’, that we
dump into our atmosphere obviously includes the waste products from
our burning of fossil fuels and our farming of animals. Primarily
this means carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide generated by
driving motor vehicles and burning coal, oil and gas to generate
electricity, and agriculture based on the exploitation of animals.
This is having a devastating impact on Earth’s climate and
environment with a vast array of manifestations adversely impacting
all life on Earth. See, for example, ‘The
World Is Burning’ and ‘The
True Environmental Cost of Eating Meat’.
But these well-known pollutants are not the only
garbage we dump into the atmosphere. Airline fuel pollutants from
both civil and military aircraft have a shocking impact too, with
significant adverse public health outcomes. Jet emissions,
particularly the highly carcinogenic benzpyrene, can cause various
cancers, lymphoma, leukemia, asthma, and birth defects. Jet
emissions affect a 25 mile area around an airport; this means that
adults, children, animals and plants are ‘crop dusted’ by toxic jet
emissions for 12 miles from a runway end.
‘A typical commercial airport spews hundreds of tons
of toxic pollutants into our atmosphere every day. These drift over
heavily populated areas and settle onto water bodies and crops.’
Despite efforts to inform relevant authorities of the dangers in the
USA, for example, they ‘continue to ignore the problem and allow
aviation emissions to remain unregulated, uncontrolled and
unreported’. See Aviation
Justice. It is no better in other countries.
Another category of atmospheric pollutants of which
you might not be aware is the particulate aerosol emitted into the
atmosphere by the progressive wear of vehicle parts, especially
synthetic rubber tyres, during their service life. Separately from
this, however, there are also heavier pollutants from wearing
vehicle tyres and parts, as well as from the wearing away of road
surfaces, that accumulate temporarily on roads before being washed
off into waterways where they accumulate.
While this substantial pollution and health problem
has attracted little research attention, some researchers in a
variety of countries have been investigating the problem.
In the USA as early as 1974, ‘tire industry
scientists estimated that 600,000 metric tonnes of tire dust were
released by tire wear in the U.S., or about 3 kilograms of dust
released from each tire each year’. In 1994, careful measurement of
air near roadways with moderate traffic ‘revealed the presence of
3800 to 6900 individual tire fragments in each cubic meter of air’
with more than 58.5% of them in the fully-breathable size range and
shown to produce allergic reactions. See ‘Tire
A study in Japan reported similar adverse
environmental and health impacts. See ‘Dust
Resulting from Tire Wear and the Risk of Health Hazards’.
Even worse, a study conducted in Moscow reported that
the core pollutant of city air (up to 60% of hazardous matter) was
the rubber of automobile tyres worn off and emitted as a small dust.
The study found that the average car tyre discarded 1.6 kilograms of
fine tyre dust as an aerosol during its service life while the tyre
from a commercial vehicle discarded about 15 kilograms.
Interestingly, passenger tyre dust emissions during
the tyre’s service life significantly exceeded (by 6-7 times)
emissions of particulate matters with vehicle exhaust gases. The
research also determined that ‘tyre wear dust contains more than 140
different chemicals with different toxicity but the biggest threat
to human health is poly-aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile
carcinogens’. The study concluded that, in the European Union:
‘Despite tightening the requirements for vehicle
tyres in terms of noise emission, wet grip and rolling resistance
stipulated by the UN Regulation No. 117, the problem of reduction of
tyre dust and its carcinogenic substance emissions due to tyre wear
remains unaddressed.’ See ‘Particulate
Matter Emissions by Tyres’.
As one toxicologist has concluded: ‘Tire rubber
pollution is just one of many environmental problems in which the
research is lagging far behind the damage we may have done.’ See ‘Road
Another pollution problem low on the public radar
results from environmental modification techniques involving
geoengineering particulates being secretly dumped into the
atmosphere by the US military for more than half a century, based on
research beginning in the 1940s. This geoengineering has been used
to wage war on the climate, environment and ultimately ourselves.
See, for example, ‘Engineered
Climate Cataclysm: Hurricane Harvey’,‘Planetary
Weapons and Military Weather Modification: Chemtrails, Atmospheric
Geoengineering and Environmental Warfare’, ‘Chemtrails:
Aerosol and Electromagnetic Weapons in the Age of Nuclear War’ and ‘The
Ultimate Weapon of Mass Destruction: “Owning the Weather” for
With ongoing official denials about the practice, it
has fallen to the ongoing campaigning of committed groups such as GeoEngineering
Watch to draw attention to and work to end this problem.
Despite the enormous and accelerating problems
already being generated by the above atmospheric pollutants, it is
worth pausing briefly to highlight the potentially catastrophic
nature of the methane discharges now being released by the warming
that has already taken place and is still taking place.
A recent scientific study published by the
prestigious journal Palaeoworld noted that ‘Global warming
triggered by the massive release of carbon dioxide may be
catastrophic, but the release of methane from hydrate may be
apocalyptic.’ This refers to the methane stored in permafrost and
Warning of the staggering risk, the study highlights
the fact that the most significant variable in the Permian Mass
Extinction event, which occurred 250 million years ago and
annihilated 90 percent of all the species on Earth, was methane
hydrate. See ‘Methane
Hydrate: Killer cause of Earth’s greatest mass extinction’and ‘Release
of Arctic Methane “May Be Apocalyptic,” Study Warns’.
How long have we got? Not long, with a recent Russian
study identifying ‘7,000
underground [methane] gas bubbles poised to “explode” in Arctic’.
Is much being done about this atmospheric pollution
including the ongoing apocalyptic release of methane? Well, there is
considerable ‘push’ to switch to renewable (solar, wind, wave,
geothermal) energy in some places and to produce electric cars in
But these worthwhile initiatives aside, and if you
ignore the mountain of tokenistic measures that are sometimes
officially promised, the answer is ‘not really’ with many issues
that critically impact this problem (including rainforest
destruction, vehicle emissions, geoengineering, jet aircraft
emissions and methane releases from animal agriculture) still being
If you want to make a difference on this
biosphere-threatening issue of atmospheric pollution, you have three
obvious choices to consider. Do not travel by air, do not travel by
car and do not eat meat (and perhaps other animal products). This
will no doubt require considerable commitment on your part. But
without your commitment in these regards, there is no realistic hope
of averting near-term human extinction. So your choices are
Many people will have heard of the problem of plastic
rubbish being dumped into the ocean. Few people, however, have any
idea of the vast scale of the problem, the virtual impossibility of
cleaning it up and the monumental ongoing cost of it, whether
measured in terms of (nonhuman) lives lost, ecological services or
financially. And, unfortunately, plastic is not the worst pollutant
we are dumping into the ocean but I will discuss it first.
In a major scientific study involving 24 expeditions
conducted between 2007 and 2013, which was designed to estimate ‘the
total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the
world’s oceans’ the team of scientists estimated that there was ‘a
minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons’. See ‘Plastic
Pollution in the World’s Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces
Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea’and ‘Full
scale of plastic in the world’s oceans revealed for first time’.
Since then, of course, the problem has become
progressively worse. See ‘Plastic
Garbage Patch Bigger Than Mexico Found in Pacific’ and ‘Plastic
Chokes the Seas’.
‘Does it matter?’ you might ask. According to this
report, it matters a great deal. See ‘New
UN report finds marine debris harming more than 800 species, costing
In his seminal classic ‘Ecological Globalistan’,
prof. Anis H. Bajrektarevic formulates: “acidifying of oceans and
brutalization of our human interactions, as well as over-noising
both of them, are just two sides of a same coin. What is the social
sphere for society that is the biosphere for the very life on
Can we remove the plastic to clean up the ocean? Not
easily. The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has
calculated that ‘if you tried to clean up less than one percent of
the North Pacific Ocean it would take 67 ships one year’.
Great Pacific Garbage Patch’. Nevertheless, and despite the
monumental nature of the problem – see ‘“Great
Pacific garbage patch” far bigger than imagined, aerial survey
shows’ – organizations like the Algalita
Research Foundation, Ocean
Cleanup and Positive
Change for Marine Life have programs in place to investigate the
nature and extent of the problem and remove some of the rubbish,
while emphasizing that preventing plastic from entering the ocean is
In addition, the UN Convention on Biological
Diversity outlined a series of measures to tackle the problem in its
2016 report ‘Marine
Debris Understanding, Preventing and Mitigating the Significant
Adverse Impacts on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity’.In February
2017, the UN launched its Clean Seas Campaign inviting governments,
corporations, NGOs and individuals to sign the pledge to reduce
their plastic consumption. See #CleanSeas
Campaign and ‘World
Campaign to Clean Torrents of Plastic Dumped in the Oceans’.
Sadly, of course, it is not just plastic that is
destroying the oceans. They absorb carbon dioxide as one
manifestation of the climate catastrophe and, among other outcomes,
this accelerates ocean acidification, adversely impacting coral
reefs and the species that depend on these reefs.
In addition, a vast runoff of agricultural poisons,
fossil fuels and other wastes is discharged into the ocean,
adversely impacting life at all ocean depths – see ‘Staggering
level of toxic chemicals found in creatures at the bottom of the
sea, scientists say’– and generating ocean ‘dead zones’: regions
that have too little oxygen to support marine organisms. See ‘Our
Planet Is Exploding With Marine “Dead Zones”’.
Since the Fukushima nuclear reactor disaster in 2011,
and despite the ongoing official coverup, vast quantities of
radioactive materials are being ongoingly discharged into the
Pacific Ocean, irradiating everything within its path. See ‘Fukushima:
A Nuclear War without a War: The Unspoken Crisis of Worldwide
Finally, you may not be aware that there are up to 70
‘still functional’ nuclear weapons as well as nine nuclear reactors
lying on the ocean floor as a result of accidents involving nuclear
warships and submarines. See ‘Naval
Nuclear Accidents: The Secret Story’ and ‘A
Nuclear Needle in a Haystack The Cold War’s Missing Atom Bombs’.
Virtually nothing is being done to stem the toxic
discharges, contain the Fukushima radiation releases or find the
nuclear weapons and nuclear reactors on the ocean floor.
Waterways and Groundwater Contamination
Many people would be familiar with the contaminants
that find their way into Earth’s wetlands, rivers, creeks and lakes.
Given corporate negligence, this includes all of the chemical
poisons and heavy metals used in corporate farming and mining
operations, as well as, in many cases around the world where rubbish
removal is poorly organised, the sewage and all other forms of
‘domestic’ waste discharged from households.
Contamination of the world’s creeks, rivers, lakes
and wetlands is now so advanced that many are no longer able to
fully support marine life. For brief summaries of the problem, see ‘Pollution
in Our Waterways is Harming People and Animals – How Can You Stop
Our Waterways: Toxic Industrial Pollution and the Unfulfilled
Promise of the Clean Water Act’ and ‘China’s
new weapon against water pollution: its people’.
Beyond this, however, Earth’s groundwater supplies
(located in many underground acquifers such as the Ogallala Aquifer
in the United States) are also being progressively contaminated by
gasoline, oil and chemicals from leaking storage tanks; bacteria,
viruses and household chemicals from faulty septic systems;
hazardous wastes from abandoned and uncontrolled hazardous waste
sites (of which there are over 20,000 in the USA alone); leaks from
landfill items such as car battery acid, paint and household
cleaners; and the pesticides, herbicides and other poisons used on
farms and home gardens. See ‘Groundwater
However, while notably absent from the list above,
these contaminants also include radioactive waste from nuclear tests
– see ‘Groundwater
drunk by BILLIONS of people may be contaminated by radioactive
material spread across the world by nuclear testing in the 1950s’ –
and the chemical contamination caused by hydraulic fracturing (fracking)
in search of shale gas, for which about 750 chemicals and
components, some extremely toxic and carcinogenic like lead and
benzene, have been used. See ‘Fracking
There are local campaigns to clean up rivers, creeks,
lakes and wetlands in many places around the world, focusing on the
primary problems – ranging from campaigning to end poison runoffs
from mines and farms to physically removing plastic and other trash
– in that area. But a great deal more needs to be done and they
could use your help.
Our unsustainable commercial farming and soil
management practices are depleting the soil of nutrients and
poisoning it with synthetic fertilisers, herbicides, pesticides and
antibiotics (the latter contained in animal manure) at such a
prodigious rate that even if there were no other adverse impacts on
the soil, it will be unable to sustain farming within 60 years. See ‘Only
60 Years of Farming Left If Soil Degradation Continues’.
But not content to simply destroy the soil through
farming, we also contaminate it with heavy metal wastes from
industrial activity, as well as sewer mismanagement – see ‘“Black
Soils” – Excessive Use of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Mercury…’– the
waste discharges from corporate mining – see, for example, ‘The
$100bn gold mine and the West Papuans who say they are counting the
cost’ – and the radioactive and many other toxic wastes from
military violence, discussed below.
We also lose vast quantities of soil by extensive
clearfelling of pristine forests to plant commercially valuable but
ecologically inappropriate ‘garbage species’ (such as palm oil trees
– see ‘The
Great Palm Oil Scandal’ – soya beans – see ‘Soy
Changes Map of Brazil, Set to Become World’s Leading Producer’ –
and biofuel crops). This leaves the soil vulnerable to rainfall
which carries it into local creeks and rivers and deposits it
downstream or into the ocean.
Staggering though it may sound, we are losing tens of
billions of tonnes of soil each year, much of it irreversibly.
Is anything being done? A little. In response to the
decades-long push by some visionary individuals and community
organizations to convert all farming to organic,biodynamic and/or
permaculture principles, some impact is being made in some places to
halt the damage caused by commercial farming. You can support these
efforts by buying organically or biodynamically-certified food (that
is, food that hasn’t been poisoned) or creating a permaculture
garden in your own backyard. Any of these initiatives will also
benefit your own health.
Of course, there is still a long way to go with the
big agricultural corporations such as Monsanto more interested in
profits than your health. See ‘Killing
Us Softly – Glyphosate Herbicide or Genocide?’, ‘Top
10 Poisons that are the legacy of Monsanto’ and ‘Monsanto
Has Knowingly Been Poisoning People for (at Least) 35 Years’.
One other noteworthy progressive change occurred in
2017 when the UN finally adopted the Minimata Convention, to curb
mercury use. See ‘Landmark
UN-backed treaty on mercury takes effect’ and ‘Minamata
Convention, Curbing Mercury Use, is Now Legally Binding’.
As for the other issues mentioned above, there is
nothing to celebrate with mining and logging corporations committed
to their profits at the expense of the local environments of
indigenous peoples all over the world and governments showing little
effective interest in curbing this or taking more than token
interest in cleaning up toxic military waste sites. As always, local
indigenous and activist groups often work on these issues against
enormous odds. See, for example, ‘Ecuador
Apart from supporting the work of the many activist
groups that work on these issues, one thing that each of us can do
is to put aside the food scraps left during meal preparation (or
after our meal) and compost them. Food scraps and waste are an
invaluable resource: nature composts this material to create soil
and your simple arrangement to compost your food scraps will help to
generate more of that invaluable soil we are losing.
One form of garbage we have been producing, ‘under
the radar’, in vast quantities for decades is antiobiotic and
antifungal drug residue. See ‘Environmental
pollution with antimicrobial agents from bulk drug manufacturing
industries… associated with dissemination of… pathogens’.
However, given that the bulk of this waste is
secretly discharged untreated into waterways by the big
pharmaceutical companies – see ‘Big
Pharma fails to disclose antibiotic waste leaked from factories’ –
the microbes are able to ‘build up resistance to the ingredients in
the medicines that are supposed to kill them’ thus ‘fueling the
creation of deadly superbugs’. Moreover, because the resistant
microbes travel easily and have multiplied in huge numbers all over
the world, they have created ‘a grave public health emergency that
is already thought to kill hundreds of thousands of people a year.’
Are governments acting to end this practice?
According to the recent and most comprehensive study of the problem
‘international regulators are allowing dirty drug production methods
to continue unchecked’. See ‘Big
Pharma’s pollution is creating deadly superbugs while the world
looks the other way’.
Given the enormous power of the pharmaceutical
industry, which effectively controls the medical industry in many
countries, the most effective response we can make as individuals is
to join the rush to natural health practitioners (such as
practitioners of homeopathy, ostepathy, naturopathy, Ayurvedic
medicine, herbal medicine and Chinese medicine) which do not
prescribe pharmaceutical drugs. For further ideas, see ‘Defeating
the Violence in Our Food and Medicine’.
Genetic Engineering and Gene Drives
Perhaps the most frightening pollutant that we now
risk releasing into the environment goes beyond the genetic
mutilation of organisms (GMOs) which has been widely practiced by
some corporations, such as Monsanto, for several decades. See, for
Food Crops Illegally Growing in India: The Criminal Plan to Change
the Genetic Core of the Nation’s Food System’.
Given that genetic engineering’s catastrophic
outcomes are well documented – see, for example, ‘10
Reasons to Oppose Genetic Engineering’ – what are gene drives?
‘Imagine that by releasing a single fly into the wild you could
genetically alter all the flies on the planet – causing them all to
turn yellow, carry a toxin, or go extinct. This is the terrifyingly
powerful premise behind gene drives: a new and controversial genetic
engineering technology that can permanently alter an entire species
by releasing one bioengineered individual.’
How effective are they? ‘Gene drives can entirely
re-engineer ecosystems, create fast spreading extinctions, and
intervene in living systems at a scale far beyond anything ever
imagined.’ For example, if gene drives are engineered into a
fast-reproducing species ‘they could alter their populations within
short timeframes, from months to a few years, and rapidly cause
This radical new technology, also called a ‘mutagenic
chain reaction’, combines the extreme genetic engineering of
synthetic biology and new gene editing techniques with the idea
‘that humans can and should use such powerful unlimited tools to
control nature. Gene drives will change the fundamental relationship
between humanity and the natural world forever.’
The implications for the environment, food security,
peace, and even social stability are breathtaking, particularly
given that existing ‘government regulations for the use of genetic
engineering in agriculture have allowed widespread genetic
contamination of the food supply and the environment.’ See ‘Reckless
Driving: Gene drives and the end of nature’.
Consistent with their track records of sponsoring,
promoting and using hi-tech atrocities against life, the recently
released (27 October 2017) ‘Gene Drive Files’ reveal that the US
military and individuals such as Bill Gates have been heavily
involved in financing research, development and promotion of this
grotesque technology. See ‘Military
Revealed as Top Funder of Gene Drives; Gates Foundation paid $1.6
million to influence UN on gene drives’ and the ‘Gene
‘Why would the US military be interested?’ you
might ask. Well, imagine what could be done to an ‘enemy’ race with
an extinction gene drive.
As always, while genuinely life-enhancing grassroots
initiatives struggle for funding, any project that offers the
prospect of huge profits – usually at enormous cost to life – gets
all the funding it needs. If you haven’t realised yet that the
global elite is insane, it might be worth pondering it now. See ‘The
Global Elite is Insane’.
Is anything being done about these life-destroying
technologies? A number of groups campaign against genetic
engineering and SynBioWatch works
to raise awareness of gene drives, to carefully explain the range of
possible uses for them and to expose the extraordinary risks and
dangers of the technology. You are welcome to participate in their
A nanoparticle is a microscopic particle whose size
is measured in nanometers. One nanometer is one billionth of a
meter. In simple English: Nanoparticles are extraordinarily tiny.
Nanoparticles are already being widely used including
during the manufacture of cosmetics, pharmacology products,
scratchproof eyeglasses, crack- resistant paints, anti-graffiti
coatings for walls, transparent sunscreens, stain-repellent fabrics,
self-cleaning windows and ceramic coatings for solar cells.
‘Nanoparticles can contribute to stronger, lighter, cleaner and
“smarter” surfaces and systems.’ See ‘What
are the uses of nanoparticles in consumer products?’
Some researchers are so enamored with nanoparticles
that they cannot even conceal their own delusions. According to one
recent report: ‘Researchers want to achieve a microscopic autonomous
robot that measures no more than six nanometers across and can be
controlled by remote.
Swarms of these nanobots could clean your house, and
since they’re invisible to the naked eye, their effects would appear
to be magical. They could also swim easily and harmlessly through
your bloodstream, which is what medical scientists find exciting.’
Unfortunately, however, nanoparticle contamination of
medicines is already well documented. See ‘New
Quality-Control Investigations on Vaccines: Micro- and
Another report indicates that ‘Some nanomaterials may
also induce cytotoxic or genotoxic responses’. See ‘Toxicity
of particulate matter from incineration of nanowaste’.What does
this mean? Well ‘cytotoxic’ means that something is toxic to the
cells and ‘genotoxic’ describes the property of chemical agents that
damage the genetic information within a cell, thus causing mutations
which may lead to cancer.
Beyond the toxic problems with the nanoparticles
themselves, those taking a wider view report the extraordinary
difficulties of managing nanowaste. In fact, according to one recent
report prepared for the UN: ‘Nanowaste is notoriously difficult to
contain and monitor; due to its small size, it can spread in water
systems or become airborne, causing harm to human health and the
Moreover ‘Nanotechnology is growing at an exponential
rate, but it is clear that issues related to the disposal and
recycling of nanowaste will grow at an even faster rate if left
unchecked.’ See ‘Nanotechnology, Nanowaste and Their Effects on
Ecosystems: A Need for Efficient Monitoring, Disposal and
Despite this apparent nonchalance about the health
impacts of nanowaste, one recent report reiterates that ‘Studies on
the toxicity of nanoparticles… are abundant in the literature’. See ‘Toxicity
of particulate matter from incineration of nanowaste’.
Moreover, in January, European Union agencies
published three documents concerning government oversight of
nanotechnology and new genetic engineering techniques. ‘Together,
the documents put in doubt the scientific capacity and political
will of the European Commission to provide any effective oversight
of the consumer, agricultural and industrial products derived from
these emerging technologies’. See ‘European
Commission: Following the Trump Administration’s Retreat from
So, as these recent reports makes clear, little is
being done to monitor, measure or control these technologies or
monitor, measure and control the harmful effects of discharging
Fortunately, with the usual absence of government
interest in acting genuinely on our behalf, activist groups such as
for Agriculture and Trade Policy and the Organic
Consumers Association campaign against nanotechnology as part of
their briefs. Needless to say, however, a lot more needs to be done.
Not content to dump our garbage in, on or under the
Earth, we also dump our junk in Space too.
‘How do we do this?’ you may well ask. Quite simply,
in fact. We routinely launch a variety of spacecraft into Space to
either orbit the Earth (especially satellites designed to perform
military functions such as spying, target identification and
detection of missile launches but also satellites to perform some
civilian functions such as weather monitoring, navigation and
communication) or we send spacecraft into Space on exploratory
missions (such as the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity).
However, getting spacecraft into Space requires the
expenditure of vast amounts of energy (which adds to pollution of
the atmosphere) and the progressive discarding of rocket propulsion
sections of the launch craft. Some of these fall back to Earth as
junk but much of it ends up orbiting the Earth as junk.
So what form does this junk take? It includes
inactive satellites, the upper stages of launch vehicles, discarded
bits left over from separation, frozen clouds of water and tiny
flecks of paint. All orbiting high above Earth’s atmosphere. With
Space junk now a significant problem, the impact of junk on
satellites is regularly causing damage and generating even more
Is it much of a problem? Yes, indeed. The problem is
so big, in fact, that NASA in the USA keeps track of the bigger
items, which travel at speeds of up to 17,500 mph, which is ‘fast
enough for a relatively small piece of orbital debris to damage a
satellite or a spacecraft’. How many pieces does it track? By 2013,
it was tracking 500,000 pieces of space junk as they orbited the
Earth. See ‘Space
Debris and Human Spacecraft’. Of course, these items are big
enough to track. But not all junk is that big.
In fact, a recent estimate indicates that the number
of Space junk items could be in excess of 100 trillion. See ‘Space
Junk: Tracking & Removing Orbital Debris’.
Is anything being done about Space junk? No
government involved in Space is really interested: It’s too
expensive for that to be seriously considered.
But given the ongoing government and military
interest in weaponizing Space, as again reflected in the recent US ‘Nuclear
Posture Review 2018’, which would add a particularly dangerous
type of junk to Space, the Global
Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space has been
conducting an effective worldwide campaign since 1992 to mobilize
resistance to weapons and nuclear power being deployed and used in
The carnage and waste produced by preparation for and
the conduct of military violence is so vast that it almost defies
description and calculation. In its most basic sense, every single
item produced to perform a military function – from part of a
uniform to a weapon – is garbage: an item that has no functional
purpose (unless you believe that killing people is functional).
To barely touch on it here then, military violence
generates a vast amount of pollution, which contaminates the
atmosphere, oceans, all fresh water sources, and the soil with
everything from the waste generated by producing military uniforms
to the radioactive waste which contaminates environments
For just a taste of this pollution, see the Toxic
Remnants of War Project, the film ‘Scarred
Lands & Wounded Lives’, ‘U.S.
Military World’s Largest Polluter – Hundreds of Bases Gravely
Uranium and Radioactive Contamination in Iraq: An Overview’ and ‘The
Long History of War’s Environmental Costs’.
Many individuals, groups and networks around the
world campaign to end war. See, for example, War
Resisters’ International, the International
Peace Bureau and World
You can participate in these efforts.
Partly related to military violence but also a
product of using nuclear power, humans generate vast amounts of
waste from exploitation of the nuclear fuel cycle. This ranges from
the pollution generated by mining uranium to the radioactive waste
generated by producing nuclear power or using a nuclear weapon. But
it also includes the nuclear waste generated by accidents such as
that at Chernobyl and Fukushima.
Again, for just a taste of the monumental nature of
this problem, see ‘Emergency
Declared at Nuclear Waste Site in Washington State’, ‘Disposing
of Nuclear Waste is a Challenge for Humanity’ and ‘Three
Years Since the Kitty Litter Disaster at Waste Isolation Pilot
While the London Dumping Convention permanently bans
the dumping of radioactive and industrial waste at sea (which means
nothing in the face of the out-of-control discharges from Fukushima,
of course) – see ‘1993
– Dumping of radioactive waste at sea gets banned’ – groups such
as Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace continue to campaign against
the nuclear industry (including radioactive waste dumping) and to
promote renewable energy.
They would be happy to have your involvement.
Some of the garbage that ends up being dumped is done
via our bodies. Apart from the junk food produced at direct cost to
the environment, the cost of these poisoned, processed and
nutritionally depleted food-like substances also manifests as
ill-health in our bodies and discharges of contaminated waste.
Rather than eating food that is organically or biodynamically grown
and healthily prepared, most of us eat processed food-like
substances that are poisoned (that is, grown with large doses of
synthetic fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides that also destroy
the soil and kill vast numbers of insects –
and Extinction of the Bees’ and ‘Insectageddon:
farming is more catastrophic than climate breakdown’ – and then
cook this food in rancid oils and perhaps even irradiate (microwave)
it before eating. Although microwave ovens were outlawed in the
Soviet Union in 1976, they remain legal elsewhere. See ‘The
Hidden Hazards of Microwave Cooking’, ‘How
Your Microwave Oven Damages Your Health In Multiple Ways’ and ‘Microwave
Cooking is Killing People’.
Unfortunately, however, considerable official effort
still goes into developing new ways to nuclearize (contaminate) our
food – see ‘Seven
examples of nuclear technology improving food and agriculture’ –
despite long-established natural practices that are effective and
have no damaging side effects or polluting outcomes.
But apart from poisoned, processed and unhealthily
prepared food, we also inject our bodies with contaminated vaccines
– see ‘New
Quality-Control Investigations on Vaccines: Micro- and
Vaccines: New Study Reveals Prevalence of Contaminants’ and ‘Aluminum,
Autoimmunity, Autism and Alzheimer’s’ – consume
medically-prescribed antibiotics (see section above) and other drugs
– see ‘The
Spoils of War: Afghanistan’s Multibillion Dollar Heroin Trade.
Washington’s Hidden Agenda: Restore the Drug Trade’– and leave
the environment to deal with the contaminated waste generated by
their production and the discharges from our body.
Many individuals and organizations all over the world
work to draw attention to these and related issues, including the
‘death-dealing’ of doctors, but the onslaught of corporate media
promotion and scare campaigns means that much of this effort is
suppressed. Maintaining an unhealthy and medically-dependent
human population is just too profitable.
If you want to genuinely care for your health and
spare the environment the toxic junk dumped though your body, the
ideas above in relation to growing and eating organic/biodynamic
food and consulting natural health practitioners are a good place to
For many people, of course, dealing with their daily
garbage requires nothing more than putting it into a rubbish bin.
But does this solve the problem?
Well, for a start, even recycled rubbish is not
always recycled, and even when it is, the environmental cost is
In fact, the various costs of dealing with rubbish is
now so severe that China, a long-time recipient of waste from
various parts of the world, no longer wants it. See ‘China
No Longer Wants Your Trash. Here’s Why That’s Potentially
Of course there are also special events that
encourage us to dump extra rubbish into the Earth’s biosphere. Ever
thought about what happens following special celebrations like
Christmas? See ‘The
Environmental Christmas Hangover’ or the waste discharged from
cruise ships? See ‘16
Things Cruise Lines Never Tell You’.
Does all this pollution really matter? Well, as
mentioned at the beginning, we pay an enormous cost for it both in
terms of human life but in other ways too. See ‘The Lancet Commission
on pollution and health’.
One category of junk, which is easily overlooked and
on which I will not elaborate, is the endless stream of junk
information with which we are bombarded. Whether it is corporate
‘news’ (devoid of important news about our world and any truthful
analysis of what is causing it) on television, the radio or in
newspapers, letterbox advertising, telephone marketing or spam
emails, our attention is endlessly distracted from what matters
leaving most humans ill-informed and too disempowered to resist the
onslaught that is destroying our world.
So what can we do about all of the junk identified
Well, unless you want to continue deluding yourself
that some token measures taken by you, governments, international
organizations (such as the United Nations) or industry are going to
fix all of this, I encourage you to consider taking personal action
that involves making a serious commitment.
This is because, at the most fundamental level, it is
individuals who consume and then discharge the waste products of
their consumption. And if you choose what you consume with greater
care and consume less, no one is going to produce what you don’t buy
or discharge the waste products of that production on your behalf.
Remember Gandhi? He was not just the great Indian
independence leader. His personal possessions at his death numbered
his few items of self-made clothing and his spectacles. We can’t all
be like Gandhi but he can be a symbol to remind us that our
possessions and our consumption are not the measure of our value. To
ourselves or anyone else.
If the many itemized suggestions made above sound
daunting, how does this option sound?
Do you think that you could reduce your consumption
by 10% this year.?And, ideally, do it in each of seven categories:
water, household energy, vehicle fuel, paper, plastic, metals and
meat? Could you do it progressively, reducing your consumption by
10% each year for 15 consecutive years? See ‘The
Flame Tree Project to Save Life on Earth’.
I am well aware of the emotional void that makes many
people use ‘shopping therapy’ to feel better or to otherwise
consume, perhaps by traveling, to distract themselves. If you are in
this category, then perhaps you could tackle this problem at its
source by ‘Putting
No consumer item or material event can ever fill the
void in your Selfhood. But you can fill this void by traveling the
journey to become the powerful individual that evolution gave you
the potential to be. If you want to understand how you lost your
Selfhood, see ‘Why
Violence?’ and ‘Fearless
Psychology and Fearful Psychology: Principles and Practice’.
You might also help ensure that children do not
acquire the consumption/pollution addiction by making ‘My
Promise to Children’.
If you want to campaign against one of the issues
threatening human survival discussed briefly above, consider
planning a Nonviolent
And if you wish to commit to resisting violence of
all kinds, you can do so by signing the online pledge of ‘The
People’s Charter to Create a Nonviolent World’.
In the final analysis, each of us has a choice. We
can contribute to the ongoing creation of Earth as the planet of
junk. Or we can use our conscience, intelligence and determination
to guide us in resisting the destruction of our world.
Robert J. Burrowes has a lifetime
commitment to understanding and ending human violence. He has done
extensive research since 1966 in an effort to understand why human
beings are violent and has been a nonviolent activist since 1981. He
is the author of ‘Why
Violence?’ His email address is email@example.com and
his website is here.
MAY 22, 2018
Why is the Korean
Reunification not to Work anytime soon
(Denuclearisation of the Far East long
to draw the line between the recent and still unsettled EU/EURO
crisis and Asia’s success story? Well, it might be easier than it
seems: Neither Europe nor Asia has any alternative. The difference
is that Europe well knows there is no alternative – and therefore is
multilateral. Asia thinks it has an alternative – and therefore is
strikingly bilateral, while stubbornly residing enveloped in
economic egoisms. No wonder that Europe is/will be able to manage
its decline, while Asia is (still) unable to capitalize its
Asia clearly does not accept any more the lead of the
post-industrial and post-Christian Europe, but is not ready for the
Following the famous saying allegedly spelled by
Kissinger: “Europe? Give me a name and a phone number!” (when – back
in early 1970s – urged by President Nixon to inform Europeans on the
particular US policy action), the author is trying to examine how
close is Asia to have its own telephone number.
Another fallacy is that the German reunification can
be just copied. 15 days at any German institute of political science
and one becomes expert of reunification. Yes, Germany is a success
story since the neighbors were extremely forgiving. And that was
enhanced by the overall pan-continental commitment to
multilateralism – by both institutions and instruments. Europe of
German re-unification was the most multilateralised region of the
world. Asia today is extremely bilateral – not far from the
constellations at the time of Hiroshima or Korean War of 1950s. No
multilateralism – no denuclearisation; no denuclearisation – no
reunification; no reunification – no overall cross-continental
tranquilization of relations; no tranquility – no Asia’s sustainable
Why multilateralism matters? Author tries to answer
By contrasting and comparing genesis of multilateral
security structures in Europe with those currently existing in Asia,
and by listing some of the most pressing security challenges in
Asia, this policy paper offers several policy incentives why the
largest world’s continent must consider creation of the
comprehensive pan-Asian institution. Prevailing security structures
in Asia are bilateral and mostly asymmetric while Europe enjoys
multilateral, balanced and symmetric setups (American and African
continents too). Author goes as far as to claim that irrespective to
the impressive economic growth, no Asian century will emerge without
creation of such an institution.
* * * *
For over a decade, many of the
relevant academic journals are full of articles prophesizing the 21
as the Asian century. The argument
is usually based on the impressive economic growth, increased
production and trade volumes as well as the booming foreign currency
reserves and exports of many populous Asian nations, with nearly 1/3
of total world population inhabiting just two countries of the
largest world’s continent. However, history serves as a powerful
reminder by warning us that economically or/and demographically
mighty gravity centers tend to expand into their peripheries,
especially when the periphery is weaker by either category. It means
that any absolute or relative shift in economic and demographic
strength of one subject of international relations will inevitably
put additional stress on the existing power equilibriums and
constellations that support this balance in the particular theater
of implicit or explicit structure.
Lessons of the Past
Thus, what is the state of art of Asia’s security
structures? What is the existing capacity of preventive diplomacy
and what instruments are at disposal when it comes to early warning/
prevention, fact-finding, exchange mechanisms, reconciliation,
capacity and confidence– building measures in the Asian theater?
While all other major theaters do have the
pan-continental settings in place already for many decades, such as
the Organization of American States – OAS (American continent),
African Union – AU (Africa), Council of Europe and Organization for
Security and Cooperation in Europe – OSCE (Europe), the
state-of-arts of the largest world’s continent is rather different.
What becomes apparent, nearly at the first glance, is the absence of
any pan-Asian security/ multilateral structure. Prevailing security
structures are bilateral and mostly asymmetric. They range from the
clearly defined and enduring non-aggression security treaties,
through less formal arrangements, up to the Ad hoc cooperation
accords on specific issues. The presence of the multilateral
regional settings is limited to a very few spots in the largest
continent, and even then, they are rarely mandated with security
issues in their declared scope of work. Another striking feature is
that most of the existing bilateral structures have an Asian state
on one side, and either peripheral or external protégé country on
the other side which makes them nearly per definition asymmetric.
The examples are numerous: the US–Japan, the US– S. Korea, the
US–Singapore, Russia–India, Australia–East Timor, Russia–North
Korea, Japan –Malaysia, China–Pakistan, the US–Pakistan,
China–Cambodia, the US–Saudi Arabia, Russia –Iran, China–Burma,
India–Maldives, Iran–Syria, N. Korea–Pakistan, etc.
Indeed, Asia today resonates a
mixed echo of the European past. It combines features of the
pre-Napoleonic, post-Napoleonic and the League-of-Nations Europe.
What are the useful lessons from the European past? Well, there are
a few, for sure. Bismarck accommodated the exponential economic,
demographic and military growth as well as the territorial expansion
of Prussia by skillfully architecturing and calibrating the complex
networks of bilateral security arrangements of 19th
century Europe. Like Asia today,
it was not an institutionalized security structure of Europe, but a
talented leadership exercising restraint and wisdom in combination
with the quick assertiveness and fast military absorptions,
concluded by the lasting endurance. However, as soon as the new
Kaiser removed the Iron Chancellor (Bismarck), the provincial and
backward–minded, insecure and militant Prussian establishment
contested (by their own interpretations of the German’s
policies) Europe and the world in two devastating world wars. That,
as well as Hitler’s establishment afterwards, simply did not know
what to do with a powerful Germany.
The aspirations and constellations of some of Asia’s
powers today remind us also of the pre-Napoleonic Europe, in which a
unified, universalistic block of the Holy Roman Empire was contested
by the impatient challengers of the status quo. Such serious
centripetal and centrifugal oscillations of Europe were not without
grave deviations: as much as Cardinal Richelieu’s and Jacobin’s
France successfully emancipated itself, the Napoleon III and
pre-WWII France encircled, isolated itself, implicitly laying the
foundation for the German attack.
Finally, the existing Asian regional settings also
resemble the picture of the post-Napoleonic Europe: first and
foremost, of Europe between the Vienna Congress of 1815 and the
revolutionary year of 1848. At any rate, let us take a quick look at
the most relevant regional settings in Asia.
By far, the largest Asian participation is with the
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation – APEC, an organization engulfing
both sides of the Pacific Rim. Nevertheless, this is a forum for
member economies not of sovereign nations, a sort of a prep-com or
waiting room for the World Trade Organization – WTO. To use the
words of one senior Singapore diplomat who recently told me in
Geneva the following: “what is your option here? ...to sign the Free
Trade Agreement (FTA), side up with the US, login to FaceBook, and
keep shopping on the internet happily ever after…”
Two other crosscutting settings,
the Organization of Islamic Cooperation – OIC and Non-Aligned
Movement – NAM, the first with and the second without a permanent
secretariat, represent the well-established political multilateral
bodies. However, they are inadequate forums as neither of the two is
strictly mandated with security issues. Although both
trans-continental entities do have large memberships being the 2nd
largest multilateral systems,
right after the UN, neither covers the entire Asian political
landscape – having important Asian countries outside the system or
Further on, one should mention the Korean Peninsula
Energy Development Organization – KEDO (Nuclear) and the
Iran-related Contact (Quartet/P-5+1) Group. In both cases, the
issues dealt with are indeed security related, but they are more an
asymmetric approach to deter and contain a single country by the
larger front of peripheral states that are opposing a particular
security policy, in this case, of North Korea and of Iran. Same was
with the short-lived SEATO Pact – a defense treaty organization for
SEA which was essentially dissolved as soon as the imminent threat
from communism was slowed down and successfully contained within the
Confidence building – an attempt
If some of the settings are reminiscent of the
pre-Napoleonic Europe, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization – SCO
and Cooperation Council for the Arab states of the Gulf – GCC remind
us of the post-Napoleonic Europe and its Alliance of the Eastern
Conservative courts (of Metternich). Both arrangements were created
on a pretext of a common external ideological and geopolitical
threat, on a shared status quo security consideration. Asymmetric
GCC was an externally induced setting by which an American key
Middle East ally Saudi Arabia gathered the grouping of the Arabian
Peninsula monarchies. It has served a dual purpose; originally, to
contain the leftist Nasseristic pan-Arabism which was introducing a
republican type of egalitarian government in the Middle Eastern
theater. It was also – after the 1979 revolution – an instrument to
counter-balance the Iranian influence in the Gulf and wider Middle
East. The response to the spring 2011-13 turmoil in the Middle East,
including the deployment of the Saudi troops in Bahrain, and
including the analysis of the role of influential Qatar-based and
GCC-backed Al Jazeera TV network is the best proof of the very
nature of the GCC mandate.
The SCO is internally induced and
more symmetric setting. Essentially, it came into existence through
a strategic Sino-Russian rapprochement,
based, for the first time in modern history, on parity, to deter
external aspirants (the US, Japan, Korea, India, Turkey and Saudi
Arabia) and to keep the resources, territory, present socio-economic
cultural and political regime in the Central Asia, Tibet heights and
the Xinjiang Uighur province
The next to consider is the Indian sub-continent’s
grouping, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation –
SAARC. This organization has a well-established mandate, well
staffed and versed Secretariat. However, the Organization is
strikingly reminiscent of the League of Nations. The League is
remembered as an altruistic setup which repeatedly failed to
adequately respond to the security quests of its members as well as
to the challenges and pressures of parties that were kept out of the
system (e.g. Russia until well into the 1930s and the US remaining
completely outside the system, and in the case of the SAARC
surrounding; China, Saudi Arabia and the US). The SAARC is
practically a hostage of mega confrontation of its two largest
members, both confirmed nuclear powers; India and Pakistan. These
two challenge each other geopolitically and ideologically. Existence
of one is a negation of the existence of the other; the religiously
determined nationhood of Pakistan is a negation of multiethnic India
and vice verse. Additionally, the SAARC although internally induced
is an asymmetric organization. It is not only the size of India, but
also its position: centrality of that country makes SAARC
practically impossible to operate in any field without the direct
consent of India, be it commerce, communication, politics or
For a serious advancement of multilateralism, mutual
trust, a will to compromise and achieve a common denominator through
active co-existence is the key. It is hard to build a common course
of action around the disproportionately big and centrally positioned
member which would escape the interpretation as containment by the
big or assertiveness of its center by the smaller, peripheral
Multivector Foreign Policy
Finally, there is an ASEAN – a
grouping of 10 Southeast Asian nations,
exercising the balanced multi-vector policy, based on the
non-interference principle, internally and externally. This,
organization has a dynamic past
and an ambitious current charter. It is an internally induced and
relatively symmetric arrangement with the strongest members placed
around its geographic center, like in case of the EU equilibrium
with Germany-France/Britain-Italy/Poland-Spain geographically
balancing each other. Situated on the geographic axis of the
southern flank of the Asian landmass, the so-called growth triangle
of Thailand-Malaysia-Indonesia represents the core of the ASEAN not
only in economic and communication terms but also by its political
leverage. The EU-like ASEAN Community Road Map (for 2015) will
absorb most of the Organization’s energy.
However, the ASEAN has managed to open its forums for the 3+3
group/s, and could be seen in the long run as a cumulus setting
towards the wider pan-Asian forum in future.
Before closing this brief
overview, let us mention two recently inaugurated informal forums,
both based on the external calls for a burden sharing. One, with a
jingoistic-coined name by the Wall Street bankers
so far includes two important Asian economic, demographic and
political powerhouses (India and China), and one peripheral
(Russia). Indonesia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan,
Iran are a few additional Asian countries whose national pride and
pragmatic interests are advocating a BRIC membership. The G–20, the
other informal forum, is also assembled on the Ad hoc (pro bono)
basis following the need of the G–7 to achieve a larger approval and
support for its monetary (currency exchange accord) and financial
(austerity) actions introduced in the aftermath of still unsettled
financial crisis. Nevertheless, the BRIC and G-20 have not provided
the Asian participating states either with the more leverage in the
Bretton Woods institutions besides a burden sharing, or have they
helped to tackle the indigenous Asian security problems. Appealing
for the national pride, however, both informal gatherings may divert
the necessary resources and attention to Asian states from their
pressing domestic, pan-continental issues.
Yet, besides the UN system machinery of the
Geneva-based Disarmament committee, the UN Security Council, the
Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons – OPCW and
International Atomic Energy Agency – IAEA (or CTBTO), even the ASEAN
Asians (as the most multilateralized Asians) have no suitable
standing forum to tackle and solve their security issues. An
organization similar to the Council of Europe or the OSCE is still
far from emerging on Asian soil.
Our history warns. Nevertheless, it also provides a
hope: The pre-CSCE (pre-Helsinki) Europe was indeed a dangerous
place to live in. The sharp geopolitical and ideological default
line was passing through the very heart of Europe, cutting it into
halves. The southern Europe was practically sealed off by notorious
dictatorships; in Greece (Colonel Junta), Spain (Franco) and
Portugal (Salazar), with Turkey witnessing several of its
governments toppled by the secular and omnipotent military
establishment, with inverted Albania and a (non-Europe minded)
non-allied, Tito’s Yugoslavia. Two powerful instruments of the US
military presence (NATO) and of the Soviets (Warsaw pact) in Europe
were keeping huge standing armies, enormous stockpiles of
conventional as well as the ABC weaponry and delivery systems,
practically next to each other. By far and large, European borders
were not mutually recognized. Essentially, the west rejected to even
recognize many of the Eastern European, Soviet dominated/installed
Territorial disputes unresolved
Currently in Asia, there is hardly a single state
which has no territorial dispute within its neighborhood. From the
Middle East, Caspian and Central Asia, Indian sub-continent,
mainland Indochina or Archipelago SEA, Tibet, South China Sea and
the Far East, many countries are suffering numerous green and blue
border disputes. The South China Sea solely counts for over a dozen
territorial disputes – in which mostly China presses peripheries to
break free from the long-lasting encirclement. These moves are often
interpreted by the neighbors as dangerous assertiveness. On the top
of that Sea resides a huge economy and insular territory in a legal
limbo – Taiwan, which waits for a time when the pan-Asian and intl.
agreement on how many Chinas Asia should have, gains a wide and
Unsolved territorial issues,
sporadic irredentism, conventional armament, nuclear ambitions,
conflicts over exploitation of and access to the marine biota, other
natural resources including fresh water access and supply are posing
enormous stress on external security, safety and stability in Asia.
Additional stress comes from the newly emerging environmental
concerns, that are representing nearly absolute security threats,
not only to the tiny Pacific nation of Tuvalu,
but also to the Maldives, Bangladesh, Cambodia, parts of Thailand,
of Indonesia, of Kazakhstan and of the Philippines, etc
. All this
combined with uneven economic and demographic dynamics
of the continent are portraying
Asia as a real powder keg.
It is absolutely inappropriate to compare the size of
Asia and Europe – the latter being rather an extension of a huge
Asian continental landmass, a sort of western Asian peninsula – but
the interstate maneuvering space is comparable. Yet, the space
between the major powers of post-Napoleonic Europe was as equally
narrow for any maneuver as is the space today for any security
maneuver of Japan, China, India, Pakistan, Iran and the like.
Let us also take a brief look at the peculiarities of
the nuclear constellations in Asia. Following the historic
analogies; it echoes the age of the American nuclear monopoly and
the years of Russia’s desperation to achieve the parity.
Besides holding huge stockpiles of
conventional weaponry and numerous standing armies, Asia is a home
of four (plus peripheral Russia and Israel) of the nine known
nuclear powers (declared and undeclared). Only China and Russia are
parties to the Non-proliferation Treaty – NPT. North Korea walked
away in 2003, whereas India and Pakistan both confirmed nuclear
powers declined to sign the Treaty. Asia is also the only continent
on which nuclear weaponry has been deployed.
Cold War exiled in Asia
As is well known, the peak of the
Cold War was marked by the mega geopolitical and ideological
confrontation of the two nuclear superpowers whose stockpiles by far
outnumbered the stockpiles of all the other nuclear powers combined.
However enigmatic, mysterious and incalculable to each other,
the Americans and Soviets were on opposite sides of the globe, had
no territorial disputes, and no record of direct armed conflicts.
Insofar, the Asian nuclear constellation is
additionally specific as each of the holders has a history of
hostilities – armed frictions and confrontations over unsolved
territorial disputes along the shared borders, all combined with the
intensive and lasting ideological rivalries. The Soviet Union had
bitter transborder armed frictions with China over the demarcation
of its long land border. China has fought a war with India and has
acquired a significant territorial gain. India has fought four
mutually extortive wars with Pakistan over Kashmir and other
disputed bordering regions. Finally, the Korean peninsula has
witnessed the direct military confrontations of Japan, USSR, Chinese
as well as the US on its very soil, and remains a split nation under
a sharp ideological divide.
On the western edge of the Eurasian continent,
neither France, Britain, Russia nor the US had a (recent) history of
direct armed conflicts. They do not even share land borders.
Finally, only India and now post-Soviet Russia have a
strict and full civilian control over its military and the nuclear
deployment authorization. In the case of North Korea and China, it
is in the hands of an unpredictable and non-transparent communist
leadership – meaning, it resides outside democratic, governmental
decision-making. In Pakistan, it is completely in the hands of a
politically omnipresent military establishment. Pakistan has lived
under a direct military rule for over half of its existence as an
What eventually kept the US and
the USSR from deploying nuclear weapons was the dangerous and costly
struggle called: “mutual destruction assurance”. Already by the late
1950s, both sides achieved parity in the number and type of nuclear
warheads as well as in the number and precision of their delivery
systems. Both sides produced enough warheads, delivery systems’
secret depots and launching sites to amply survive the first impact
and to maintain a strong second-strike capability.
Once comprehending that neither the preventive nor preemptive
nuclear strike would bring a decisive victory but would actually
trigger the final global nuclear holocaust and ensure total mutual
destruction, the Americans and the Soviets have achieved a
fear–equilibrium through the hazardous deterrence. Thus, it was not
an intended armament rush (for parity), but the non-intended Mutual
Assurance Destruction – MAD – with its tranquilizing effect of
nuclear weaponry, if possessed in sufficient quantities and
impenetrable configurations – that brought a bizarre sort of
pacifying stability between two confronting superpowers. Hence, MAD
prevented nuclear war, but did not disarm the superpowers.
As noted, the nuclear stockpiles
in Asia are considerably modest.
The number of warheads, launching sites and delivery systems is not
sufficient and sophisticated enough to offer the second strike
capability. That fact seriously compromises stability and security:
preventive or preemptive N–strike against a nuclear or non-nuclear
state could be contemplated as decisive, especially in South Asia
and on the Korean peninsula, not to mention the Middle East.
A general wisdom of geopolitics assumes the
potentiality of threat by examining the degree of intensions and
capability of belligerents. However, in Asia this theory does not
necessarily hold the complete truth: Close geographic proximities of
Asian nuclear powers means shorter flight time of warheads, which
ultimately gives a very brief decision-making period to engaged
adversaries. Besides a deliberate, a serious danger of an accidental
nuclear war is therefore evident.
One of the greatest thinkers and
humanists of the 20th
century, Erich Fromm wrote:
“…man can only go
forward by developing (his) reason, by finding a new harmony…”
There is certainly a long road from vision and wisdom
to a clear political commitment and accorded action. However, once
it is achieved, the operational tools are readily at disposal. The
case of Helsinki Europe is very instructive. To be frank, it was the
over-extension of the superpowers who contested one another all over
the globe, which eventually brought them to the negotiation table.
Importantly, it was also a constant, resolute call of the European
public that alerted governments on both sides of the default line.
Once the political considerations were settled, the technicalities
gained momentum: there was – at first – mutual pan-European
recognition of borders which tranquilized tensions literally
overnight. Politico-military cooperation was situated in the
so-called first Helsinki basket, which included the joint military
inspections, exchange mechanisms, constant information flow, early
warning instruments, confidence–building measures mechanism, and the
standing panel of state representatives (the so-called Permanent
Council). Further on, an important clearing house was situated in
the so-called second basket – the forum that links the economic and
environmental issues, items so pressing in Asia at the moment.
Admittedly, the III OSCE Basket
was a source of many controversies in the past years, mostly over
the interpretation of mandates. However, the new wave of
nationalism, often replacing the fading communism, the emotional
charges and residual fears of the past, the huge ongoing formation
of the middle class in Asia whose passions and affiliations will
inevitably challenge established elites domestically and question
their policies internationally, and a related search for a new
social consensus – all that could be successfully tackled by some
sort of an Asian III basket. Clearly, further socio-economic growth
in Asia is impossible without the creation and mobilization of a
strong middle class – a segment of society which when appearing anew
on the socio-political horizon is traditionally very exposed and
vulnerable to political misdeeds and disruptive shifts. At any rate,
there are several OSCE observing nations from Asia;
from Thailand to Korea and Japan, with Indonesia, a nation that
currently considers joining the forum. They are clearly benefiting
from the participation.
Consequently, the largest
continent should consider the creation of its own comprehensive
pan-Asian multilateral mechanism. In doing so, it can surely rest on
the vision and spirit of Helsinki. On the very institutional setup,
Asia can closely revisit the well-envisioned SAARC and ambitiously
fora. By examining these two
regional bodies, Asia can find and skillfully calibrate the
appropriate balance between widening and deepening of the security
mandate of such future multilateral organization – given the number
of states as well as the gravity of the pressing socio-political,
environmental and politico-military challenges.
In the age of unprecedented
success and the unparalleled prosperity of Asia, an indigenous
multilateral pan-Asian arrangement presents itself as an
opportunity. Contextualizing Hegel’s famous saying that “freedom
is…an insight into necessity”
let me close by stating that a need for the
domesticated pan-Asian organization warns by its urgency too.
Clearly, there is no emancipation of the continent;
there is no Asian century, without the pan-Asian multilateral
Prof. Anis H. Bajrektarevic, Chairman Intl. Law &
Global Pol. Studies
(authored 6 books on geopolitics, technology,
security and energy)
Vienna, 18 MAY 18
Bajrektarevic, Anis, “Verticalization
of Historical Experiences: Europe’s and Asia’s Security Structures –
Structural Similarities and Differences”, Crossroads, The Mac
Foreign Policy Journal, Skopje (Vol. I Nr. 4) 2007
Bajrektarevic, Anis, “Institutionalization
of Historical Experiences: Europe and Asia – Same Quest, Different
Results, Common Futures”, Worldviews and the Future of Human
Civilization, (University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, November 2008)
Bajrektarevic, Anis, “Destiny
Shared: Our Common Futures – Human Capital beyond 2020”, the 5th
Global Tech Leaders Symposium ,
Singapore-Shanghai March 2005 (2005)
Bajrektarevic, Anis, “Structural
Differences in Security Structures of Europe and Asia – Possible
Conflicting Cause in the SEA Theater”, The 4th
Viennese conference on SEA, SEAS
Vienna June 2009 (2009)
Duroselle, J.B., “Histoire
Diplomatique – Études Politiques, Économiques et Sociales”,
Dalloz Printing Paris (first published 1957), 1978
Friedman, George, “The Next 100
Years”, Anchor Books/Random House NY (2009)
Fromm, Erich, “The Art of
Loving”, Perennial Classics, (page: 76) (1956)
Hegel, G.W.F., Phänomenologie
des Geistes (The
Phenomenology of Mind, 1807), Oxford University Press, 1977 (page:
Mahbubani, Kishore, “The New
Public Affairs, Perseus Books Group (page: 44-45) (2008)
Sagan, S.D. and Waltz, K.N., “The
Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate Renewed”, (page: 112) (2003)
Following the famous saying allegedly spelled by
Kissinger: “Europe? Give me a name and a phone number!” (when – back
in early 1970s – urged by President Nixon to inform Europeans on the
particular US policy action), the author is trying to examine how
close is Asia to have its own telephone number.
By contrasting and comparing genesis of multilateral
security structures in Europe with those currently existing in Asia,
and by listing some of the most pressing security challenges in
Asia, this article offers several policy incentives why the largest
world’s continent must consider creation of the comprehensive
pan-Asian institution. Prevailing security structures in Asia are
bilateral and mostly asymmetric while Europe enjoys multilateral,
balanced and symmetric setups (American and African continents too).
Author goes as far as to claim that irrespective to the impressive
economic growth, no Asian century will emerge without creation of
such an institution.
Security, multilateralism, Asia, geopolitics,
geo-economics, preventive diplomacy,
(nuclear weapons, border disputes, Council of Europe,
OSCE, OAS, AU, EU, NATO, OIC, NAM, ASEAN, APEC, SAARC, GCC, SCO,
KEDO, SEATO, BRIC, G-7, G-20, Japan, China, the US, Russia/SU,
Alliance of Eastern Conservative Courts, pre-Napoleonic Europe,
growth, middle class, nationalism)
MAY 19, 2018
Junk - Is Earth the Largest Garbage Dump in the Universe? - Robert J.
is the Korean Reunification not to Work anytime soon - (Denuclearisation
of the Far East long way Ahead)
PARITY BE MORE PROPORTIONAL? - Zlatko Hadžidedić
– EU: Waiting for Godot - By Aaron Denison
De-evolutioning with Brexit and Trump: Where Marx went wrong -
without Colonies – Dakhla without Potemkin Village - Emhamed Khadad
of the Banking Industry – Not without Blockchain - By Oliver Aziator
Change: Unfit for the residual heat - By Élie Bellevrat and Kira
European Commission's Strategy for the Western Balkans - Bureaucrats
Crusade - By Zlatko Hadžidedić
Shared - the EU twin from Asia: New memories, old wounds - Rattana
PUBLICATIONS DECEMBRE 2017
Non-acceptance of ICTY judgments and “humanisation”of crimes and
criminals - Bakhtyar Aljaf - IFIMES
Revisiting Dictatorship: Democracy is Worst
Form of Government, Indeed - By Endy Bayuni
of Justice at the ICTY: Bosnians consider guilty genocide verdict
for Mladić incomplete - By Tarik Borogovac, Bosnian Congress USA
prof. dr. Anis Bajrektarevic
Editor - Geopolitics, History, International Relations (GHIR) Addleton Academic
Publishers - New YorK
Senior Advisory board member, geopolitics of energy Canadian energy research
institute - ceri, Ottawa/Calgary
Advisory Board Chairman Modern Diplomacy & the md Tomorrow's people platform
Head of mission and department head - strategic studies on Asia
Professor and Chairperson Intl. law & global pol. studies
Critical Similarities and Differences in SS of Asia and Europe - Prof.
Anis H. Bajrektarevic
MENA Saga and Lady Gaga - (Same dilemma from the MENA) - Anis H. Bajrektarevic
HE ONGOING PUBLIC DEBT CRISIS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: IMPACTS ON AND LESSONS
FOR VIETNAM - Dr. Nguyen Anh Tuan, Assos. Prof. Nguyen Linh
Change and Re Insurance: The Human Security Issue SC-SEA Prof. Anis
Bajrektarevic & Carla Baumer
(Researcher and Lecturer at the Faculty of Social and Politics,
University of Jayabaya)
the ‘crisis of secularism’ in Western Europe the result of multiculturalism?
Dr. Emanuel L. Paparella
A Modest “Australian” Proposal to Resolve our Geo-Political Problems
Were the Crusades Justified? A Revisiting - Dr. Emanuel L. Paparella
Earned an MA in International Relations from the University of East
Anglia in Norwich, United Kingdom in 2013. Her research interests include
foreign policy decision-making, realism and constructivism, and social
psychology and constructivism.
is an independent researcher specialized in International Politics and Peace
& Conflict Studies with a regional focus on the Balkans and the Middle East.
Founder of Internacionalista
São Paulo, Brazil
Brazil – New Age
political character of Social Media: How do Greek Internet users perceive and
use social networks?
SWISS UMEF UNIVERSITY
is a master`s degree student on the University for Criminal justice and Security
in Ljubljana. She obtained her bachelor`s degree in Political Science- Defense
George Mason University School of Policy, Government, and
Intl. Relations She focuses on Russia and Central Asia. Ms. Brletich is an
employee of the US Department of Defense.
Interview on HRT-Radio
Prof. dr. Anis Bajrektarević
Dr Filippo ROMEO,
is the outspoken Indonesian thinker,
social-cause fighter and trendsetter. She is the author of Julia’s Jihad.
Mads is an intern at PCRC. Mads Jacobsen is from Denmark and is currently
pursuing his Master's degree in 'Development and International Relations' at
University of Bihac, Faculty of Education,
Department of English Language and Literature - undergraduate
University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Philology, Department of English Language
and Literature - graduate study
Rakesh Krishnan Simha
New Zealand-based journalist and foreign affairs analyst. According to him, he
writes on stuff the media distorts, misses or ignores.
Rakesh started his career in 1995 with New Delhi-based Business World magazine,
and later worked in a string of positions at other leading media houses such as
India Today, Hindustan Times, Business Standard and the Financial Express, where
he was the news editor.
He is the Senior Advisory Board member of one of the fastest growing Europe’s
foreign policy platforms: Modern Diplomacy.
Daniele Scalea, geopolitical
analyst, is Director-general of IsAG (Rome Institute of Geopolitics) and Ph.D.
Candidate in Political studies at the Sapienza University, Rome. Author of three
books, is frequent contributor and columnist to various Tv-channels and
Research Associate at Institute of High
Studies in Geopolitics and Auxiliary Sciences (IsAG), Rome, Italy, and Ph.D.
researcher at University of Padova, is IMN Country Representative in Italy.
Foreign Policy Advisor to former Croatian
President Stjepan Mesić
Graduate of the London School of Economics,
prof. Zlatko Hadžidedić is a prominent thinker,
prolific author of numerous books, and indispensable political figure of the
former Yugoslav socio-political space in 1990s, 2000s and 2010s.
Mr. Nicola Bilotta
Nicola Bilotta has a BA and a MA
in History from Università degli Studi di Milano and a MSc in Economic History
from the London School of Economics. He works as a Global Finance Research
Assistant at The Banker (Financial Times) and collaborates as an external
researcher at ISAG (Istituto di Alti Studi di Geopolitica e Scienze Ausiliari)
Date and Place of Birth: April 22, 1943 – Amurang,
North Sulawesi, IndonesiaEducation: Bachelor in Public
Writer was a member of the House of Representatives
of Indonesia (DPR/MPR-RI) period of 1987-1999, and Chairman of
Committee X, cover Science and Technology, Environment and National
Development Planning (1988-1997).
Currently as Obsever of Nuclear for peace.
Attached to the US-based Berkeley University,
Sooyoung Hu is a scholar at its Political Science and Peace and Conflict
Studies Department. Miss Hu focuses on international relations, international
organizations and its instruments.
is a Ottawa-based free-lance writer from Zanzibar, Tanzania.
Recently retired Senior lecturer on Development studies, he extensively
publishes in over 50 countries on 4 continents. He can be reached at
Robert Leonard Rope
He studied at the University of
He lives in: San Francisco, California: San Francisco, California, USA
Dr. Enis OMEROVIĆ
Max Hess is a senior political risk analyst
with the London-based AEK international, specializing in Europe and Eurasia.
Ananya Bordoloi is a Malaysia based researcher in the fields
of international relations, global governance and human rights. Author has
previously worked with Amnesty International in research and data collection
capacity, and for a publishing company as a pre-editor.
Robert J. Burrowes
has a lifetime commitment to understanding and
ending human violence. He has done extensive research since 1966 in an effort to
understand why human beings are violent and has been a nonviolent activist since
1981. He is the author of ‘Why
Violence?’ His email address is firstname.lastname@example.org and
his website is here.