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The man of the year

Guy Verhofstadt
Mr. Guy Verhofstadt

The man of the year
L'homme de l'an
De man van het jaar
2009


A proven Democrat, protector and fighter for justice and human rights in the World.

Een bewezen Democraat, beschermer en strijder voor rechtvaardigheid en mensenrechten in de Wereld.

Un prouvé démocrate, protecteur et combattant pour la justice et des droits de l'homme dans le Mond.

Eine bewährte Demokrat, Beschützer und Kämpfer für Gerechtigkeit und Menschenrechte in der Welt.

Dokazani demokrat,
 zaštitnik i borac za pravdu i ljudska prava u Svijetu.





Guarantee
Peace in the World


Mr. Barak Hossein Obama

Guarantee
peace in the world

Garantie
vrede in de wereld

Garantie
la paix dans le monde

Garantie des Friedens in der Welt

Zabezpečenie
mieru vo svete

Garancija
mira u svijetu
 





Murray Hunter
University Malaysia Perlis



Perpetual Self conflict: Self awareness as a key to our ethical drive, personal mastery, and perception of entrepreneurial opportunities.
Murray Hunter




The Continuum of Psychotic Organisational Typologies
Murray Hunter




There is no such person as an entrepreneur, just a person who acts entrepreneurially
Murray Hunter




Groupthink may still be a hazard to your organization - Murray Hunter



Generational Attitudes and Behaviour - Murray Hunter



The environment as a multi-dimensional system: Taking off your rose coloured glasses - Murray Hunter



Imagination may be more important than knowledge: The eight types of imagination we use - Murray Hunter



Do we have a creative intelligence? - Murray Hunter



Not all opportunities are the same: A look at the four types of entrepreneurial opportunity - Murray Hunter



   The Evolution of Business Strategy - Murray Hunter



How motivation really works - Murray Hunter



Evaluating Entrepreneurial Opportunities: What’s wrong with SWOT? - Murray Hunter



The five types of thinking we use - Murray Hunter



Where do entrepreneurial opportunities come from? - Murray Hunter



How we create new ideas - Murray Hunter



How emotions influence, how we see the world? - Murray Hunter



People tend to start businesses for the wrong reasons - Murray Hunter



One Man, Multiple Inventions: The lessons and legacies of Thomas Edison - Murray Hunte


   
Does Intrapreneurship exist in Asia? - Murray Hunter



 What’s with all the hype – a look at aspirational marketing - Murray Hunter



   Integrating the philosophy of Tawhid – an Islamic approach to organization - Murray Hunter



Samsara and the Organization - Murray Hunter















 

 


How we create new ideas

Murray Hunter

University Malaysia Perlis

Have you ever thought where do our ideas come from? How do we develop entrepreneurial ideas from random concepts in our mind?

At the cognitive level our mind is full of mental imagery and other forms of information stored in our memory in the form of schemata. Our schema play a paramount role in our beliefs, values, and how we make sense of the world, influencing the way we think about things and make decisions[1]. Schemata provide a cognitive structure where algorithm-like sequences assist the individual understand events and situations[2]. Schemata also enable an individual construct scenes or vignettes in our mind[3], which manifest our thoughts, desires, and fantasies. Generally our schemata maintain the rigidity of our belief systems[4], which enables the individual to maintain their inspirational and behavioral trajectories forming the informational basis of our thinking and decision making[5][6]. Our schemata forms the basis of what could be called our dominant logic (or what the author likes to call dominant narrative), that encapsulates our identity[7].

When new information is perceived out in the environment, it may conflict with our existing dominant narrative. This could arise from any number of displacements like the unexpected dropping of a set of keys onto the ground, or a much more drastic event like the loss of a job or death in the family. Shocks or displacements bring attention to a state of disequilibrium where the dominant narrative we hold is challenged. If these challenges are not suppressed or denied by our defense mechanisms, an individual may be able to think of and develop solutions to these discontinuities to bring back stability[8] and view alternative courses of action[9]. These shocks will be accompanied with either positive or negative emotions which may generally influence the trajectories we take[10].

Shock or displacement may lead to a situation where the individual doesn’t know how to respond and begins to use effectuation (or trial and error) to handle the situation, thereby making connections and constructions out of different pieces of information the person has available within their memory at the time. Existing schemata will integrate the person’s knowledge into the new thought vectors which brings congruency in thoughts and judgment[11]. After a period of confusion these thoughts after some re-assessment begin to form a catharsis, which may lead to seeing new ideas.

Concepts are the building blocks of ideas, very general abstract notions that can be built into specific ideas. Concepts are built upon images and perceptions. They tend to have vague and descriptive meanings, rather than actionable notions. Concepts are descriptive views of something in the environment that exist, or something from the imagination that exists only in fantasy. These may not necessarily be in the form of language, but may be images, symbols, spatial visages, or musical themes, etc. One or more conceptualizations will usually be combined together to form an idea, which can be refined, developed, enlarged, and elaborated upon to form something that can be acted upon.

For example, a description of a restaurant is a concept that provides a list of characteristics with little actionable meaning. Mexican food is another concept that is also descriptive of something, but when they are combined together they become a Mexican restaurant which becomes an idea that can be elaborated upon, expanded, refined, developed, and action taken. Likewise the concept of a theatre company and the concept of a restaurant can be combined together to form a theatre restaurant. In Melbourne, Australia, the concept of a tram running around the city was combined with the concept of a restaurant to form the Colonial Tramway Restaurant[12].

The first airplane, the Wright Flyer 1 was invented from a number of concepts including the basic concepts of aerodynamics (thrust, drag, lift, and gravity), the box kite, and a petrol engine powering a propeller to create thrust, balance, and stability. In each case individual concepts were observed, considered, assembled, synergized, and tested, to make a complete form.

These emerging concepts must develop a critical mass of thought that connects snippets of information that merge into meaning that both the thinker and society can share. Entrepreneurial opportunities may be developed through effectuative imagination (something like thought experiments), or an invention by experimental engineering.

Concepts can be formed from information where ideas can be developed by fusing the different pieces together. For example:

Information (1): the population in many developed countries is aging.
Information (2): As there are less people at study age, universities are developing excess capacity.
Information (3): Universities are subject to funding cuts.
Information (4): Many developing countries have young populations at study age who wish to gain an education.

These threads of information can be developed into the idea of taking foreign fee paying students into developed country universities that have excess capacity.

Similarly,

Information (1): the costs of running a service department in a firm within a developed country are very high. Information (2): Operational costs in countries like India are much lower.
Information (3): Countries like India have abundant and highly educated people, who speak English very well. Information (4): Voice over internet protocol (VOIP) allows direct and cheap communication around the world.

Therefore this information can be developed into the idea of a customer service centre located in Mumbai to service customers over the phone in the United States.

Each concept is situational to a particular time and place, as words, images, objects, signs and symbols. The individual concepts must be arranged in a manner that creates some form of shared and valued meaning. Narrative is a store and carrier of knowledge, particularly within social contexts. An idea becomes a narrative of meaning which members of the community can embrace and benefit from the revelation of another’s imagination[13]. Narrative conveys ideas through conversation, action, and symbols to others who in turn become able to share experiences and perceptions through the same stories. The new narrative must trigger peoples’ memory[14] and transplant an appreciation them into the story[15] that inserts emotion which plays a major role in creating these associations[16]. The process of developing a narrative is critical to creating a new idea and the identity of the idea is critical to the legitimacy it receives from stakeholders[17]. Narrative, symbols, and images of successful ideas become embedded within our social knowledge structure. Social change can be seen as new themes running through the community that binds people through common perceptions and tacit agreement.

Developing concepts into ideas is very much a learning process that creates a linkage or nexus between real world experiences and the conceptual world of how we see the world ought to be. The first step of this process is to identify concepts. An idea that can’t be physically tested may be developed through the socio-cognitive process of ‘talking through’ the issues as a means of thinking and articulating them to create clarity[18]- developing an idea as a narrative. An invention can be tested in the real world, crafting concrete experiences and then reflecting upon the outcomes. Unsatisfactory results will trigger further reflection and another round of experimentation, refining the idea further. This process may continue a number of times until ideas are refined. If after continued experimentation the results are still not satisfactory, then a complete evaluation seeking further information may be required before further testing and experimentation. Eventually new divergent knowledge is created. This process of trial and error is how Orville and Wilbur Wright learned how to build a powered airplane and fly it. This learning process is seen on the left hand side of figure 1. This is also the way many entrepreneurial ideas are constructed.

Concepts can be extracted and synergized from unrelated locations, objects and other business models. For example, a person may secure a particular location and wish to create some form of business model that would serve potential customers within that location. Potential young customers around the precinct of a university like to gather at near campus restaurants or coffee lounges for snacks and social gatherings. The general characteristics of a generic fast-food business is that it is cheap, has a good standard of hygiene, good service, fast and efficient, specializing in a particular food, people know what to expect and a meeting place for people. After study of the situation some of the characteristics of a generic fast-food business can be extracted according to what the potential entrepreneur feels are most important to the potential clientele of the potential location and a new concept constructed. A hypothetical result might be a charcoal BBQ Burger Grill which is conveniently located, cheap and affordable, has good service, a unique and tasty charcoal grill, and is a convenient meeting place with WiFi, etc. This is called concept extraction where the potentially successful elements of a concept are synergized together to create a new idea. This is shown pictorially in Figure 2.

Individuals develop ideas and refine them through a learning process[19]. Some people will learn better through actively testing their ideas in the real world, while others learn better through reflection upon the different attributes of their experience and ideas. Some people’s learning styles may be more suited to different challenges through the entrepreneurial process during venture development[20]. According to Ward people have their own preferred ways of learning where each cognitive approach to learning will utilize emphasize different types of information in developing idea constructs[21].



Figure 1. The opportunity creation process


Some people may prefer the method of assimilation and grasp experience by thinking and theorizing, then transforming the information by watching and reflecting. Assimilators conceptualize in abstract and undertake reflective observation. People with assimilative learning preferences will tend to stew over potential solutions to problems and directions to take[22]. Assimilators are excellent at pulling together disparate observations and building these separate information strands into coherent ideas[23]. In their ideas, assimilators will tend to be logically precise putting more emphasis on the theory behind the concept than the practical side.

The converger grasps by thinking and theorizing and then transforming the information by doing and applying. Convergers rely on abstract conceptualization and experimentation. While convergers may not be doing something all the time, they never stop thinking about problems and their solutions[24]. They will build up their technical knowledge and platform, ready to utilize it on developing solution and products once they understand all the issues involved[25]. They tend to be more technical rather than socially orientated[26].

The diverger grasps by feeling and doing and then transforms the information by watching and reflecting. Divergers have the opposite strengths to convergers. They have a strong imagination and ability to read people and situations through their social awareness abilities. They are able to look at situations from many perspectives and organize many interrelationships into a meaningful gestalt. They are strong at evaluating concepts through the market, financial, and operational issues, etc., through rich personal networks they build up[27].

The accommodator grasps experience by feeling and doing and then transforms the information by doing and applying. Accommodators tend to have the opposite strengths to assimilators. Accommodators prefer concrete experiences and active experimentation. They prefer to do rather than to theorize. They are opportunity seeking and like to act rather than spend a long period of time evaluating the opportunity. They are able to implement plans extremely well and their strength is towards opportunity exploitation.

Robinson and Rose postulated that we tend to learn from personal disturbances which bring chaos and then allow us let go of existing knowledge to replace it with new knowledge[28]. This is consistent with the entrepreneurial process where a trigger like losing a job or seeing a shop vacant for rent may launch a person onto taking new trajectories like pursuing an opportunity[29]. Robinson and Rose postulated that emotional awareness will facilitate the transition from disturbance to chaos in order to begin critical reflection to facilitate the transition to ‘letting go’ of past beliefs, to enable the learning of new knowledge. This process involves synthesis in thinking rather than linear thinking and is a deep emotional experience[30].

Learning can be hindered or distorted by a number of cognitive mechanisms[31]. For example many entrepreneurs are flawed in their thinking due to the use of small samples, and display overconfidence in their abilities when evaluating opportunities. Other cognitive biases such as ‘obstacle thinking’ leads an individual to focus on the negative aspects of an opportunity, providing reasons for giving up and abandoning an idea[32].

People have cognitive structures that limit their field of vision allowing only selective perception and interpretation[33]. This plays an important role in what people become interested in and what they see in the environment and behave in response[34]. Individuals are steered by their dominant logic which acts as a lens through which they view the environment and see emerging opportunities[35].These interpretive schemata act as mindsets or mental maps that create a particular world view for any individual[36]. Thus dominant logic makes a person’s perception and responses unique. According to March the commitment brought through a person’s dominant logic is more important in action than a person’s thoughtfulness[37], thus motivation, drive, and passion are central to the development of ideas.

Evolving ideas become a personal narrative of the entrepreneur, a conceptual framework with a motivated objective. The idea is attached to excitement and a set of other emotions becoming the individual’s gestalt, ‘a theory of success,’ or a new mantra for the future. Narrative becomes absorbed within the person becoming a source of drive and momentum[38]. New narratives call the present into question, replacing it with an alternative future. Through narrative, ambiguity is eliminated and replaced with a clear and guiding path of action, a new trajectory which becomes the new meaning for the entrepreneur and venture, exerting influence on those involved to accomplish it[39]. New narratives are introduced into society where they are tried, some rejected, and some accepted, emerging as a shared meaning to all. As we see, many narratives are archetypal with common structures, allusions, and metaphors to convey to society through public discourse by our corporations today. We can see common themes of responsibility, transparency, sustainability, accountability, and caring, etc.

Entrepreneurs develop their ideas from personal rather than abstract perspectives where possibilities are explored within their own personal constructs and constraints[40]. With a map of the future by which to navigate, the vision is set out so the idea can take on a framework where structure can be added by assembling skills, competencies, organizational capabilities, and resources together, and identifying which parts of the entrepreneur’s networks are required, or what new networks need to be created, and what action is required within the competitive environment through a formulated strategy. Once an idea has structure the process of action can commence.

The assembly of various components to enact an idea into action and reality requires retrospective reasoning to assemble all the components through our strategic imagination. This process may take a long period of time to develop into something that action can be taken upon and may even continue after the entrepreneurial start-up is in operation. This is not any predictable staged or linear process and it is haphazard and something unique to each individual.

The narrative that the entrepreneur develops about any opportunity provides insight into his or her future effectiveness[41]. How the opportunity is described, what histories, analogies, and metaphors used will provide insight into the meaning and commitment towards the opportunity. There is nothing mysterious about creating ideas, it is a ‘mind-flow’ of thought that eventually reaches a critical mass and through rearrangement and recombination the resulting narrative becomes the basis for action. Some ideas drift away while others continue to be built upon like Darwin’s concept of ‘natural selection’ and the Orville and Wilbur Wright’s quest for powered flight. There is rarely any eureka moment, although insights are gained along the way, as most ideas travel along a slow path of development, which on the whole maybe mundane and boring to most[42].This eventually leads to the construction of new knowledge that develops into the narrative of a new invention, idea, opportunity, or venture. Within the process of effectuation, some narratives are picked up and others dropped as ideas develop and are refined.

From the entrepreneurship perspective, an opportunity can be constructed from the imagination where products, themes, and brands create a story of new experience. Alternately there maybe the discovery of a potential incongruence where perceived latent demand exists in which case the primary narrative will be aimed at satisfying these perceived needs[43]. As this process emerges our ideas manifest as stories, new opportunities and ideas are very much a socially constructed process where the outcomes develop new knowledge which provides new shared meanings[44]. The narrative of new ideas, entrepreneurial opportunity, and invention is about ‘what might be’ and ‘how the world might look and act’ as they are created and developed[45]. Imagination and the resulting stories are turned from fantasy and fiction into reality.



Figure 2. A constructed conceptual concept of a charcoal BBQ Burger Grill.

 



Notes and References

[1] Gioia, D.A. & Poole, P.P. (1984), “Scripts in Organizational Behavior,” The Academy of Management Review 9(3): 449-459.

[2] . Lord, R.G. & Kernan, M.C. (1987), “Scripts as Determinants of Purposeful Behavior in Organizations,” The Academy of Management Review 12(2): 265-277.

[3] Wyer, R.S. & Carlston, D.E. (1979), Social cognition, Inference, and Attribution. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

[4]Abelson, R.P. (1981), “Psychological Status of the Script Concept,” American Psychologist 36(7): 715-729, and Beach, L.R. & Connolly, T. (2005), The Psychology of Decision Making: People in Organizations, 2nd Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

[5] Mitchell et al. (2000) define a number of scripts that influence individual’s reasoning. Those relevant to opportunity include arrangement scripts that are knowledge structures about the specific arrangements that that support performance and expert level mastery within an organization, willingness scripts that are knowledge structures that underlie commitment to new venture creation, and ability scripts that contain knowledge about a person’s skills, competencies, norms, and attitudes. See Mitchell, R., Smith, B., Seawright, K., & Morse, E. (2000). “Cross-cultural Cognitions and the Venture Creation Process,” Academy Management Journal 43(5): 974-993.

[6] Beach, L.R. & Mitchell, T.R. (1987), “Image Theory: Principals, Goals, and Plans in Decision Making,” Acta Psychologica 66: 201-220; Beach, L.R. (1993), “Broadening the Definition of Decision Making: The Role of Prochoice Screening Options,” Psychological Science 4(4): 215-220; and Beach, L.R. & Connolly, T. (2005), op. cit.

[7] Dominant logic is a term that was first used in the field of strategic management by C.K. Prahalad and Richard Bettis to describe the way managers deal with the diversity of strategic decisions based on their cognitive orientations or what was to be called mental maps by Peter Senge almost a decade later. The author describes the dominant logic as a person’s worldview which manifests into a person’s underlying assumptions, beliefs, values, and desires. The dominant logic also carries a person’s likes, dislikes interests and aspirations, thus influencing cognitive attention, focus and concentration. The dominant logic evolves out of a person’s experiences, knowledge, and long term emotional orientations, forming a major part of identity. Therefore dominant logic governs what a person perceives, thinks about, and how they behave. Dominant logic is socially and culturally embedded, linking the person to the outside environment, and operates sub-consciously within the individual. Prahalad, C.K. & Bettis, R.A. (1986), “The Dominant Logic: A New Linkage between Diversity and Performance,” Strategic Management Journal 7(6): 485-501.

[8] Tushman, M. & Romanelli, E. (1985), “Organizational Evolution: A Metamorphosis Model of Convergence and Reorientation,” Research in Organizational Behavior 7: 171-222.

[9] Lee, T.W. & Mitchell, T.R. (1994), “An Alternative Approach: The Unfolding Model of Voluntary Employee Turnover,” Academy of Management Review 19(1): 51-89.

[10] Holtom, B.C. & Inderrieden, E.J. (2006), “Integrating the unfolding model and job embeddedness model to better understand voluntary turnover,” Journal of Management Issues 18(4): 435-453.

[11] Huning, T. M. (2009), “New Venture Creation: An Image Theory Perspective,” Southern Journal of Entrepreneurship, Annual Conference Papers, 130-144.

[12] See: http://www.tramrestaurant.com.au/en/

[13] Pinker, S., (1994), The Language Instinct. New York: Penguin, 16.

[14] Schank, R.C. & Abelson, R.P. (1995), “Knowledge and Memory: The Real Story,” in Wyer, R. S. (ed.), Knowledge and Memory. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

[15] Green, M.C. (2008), “Research Challenges in Narrative Persuasion,” Information Design Journal 16(1): 47-52.

[16] Hunter, M. (2011), “The Myths and Realities of Odour Psychology,” Personal Care November: 22-26.

[17] Lounsbury, M., & Glynn, M. A. (2001), “Cultural Entrepreneurship: Stories, Legitimacy, and the Acquisition of Resources,” Strategic Management Journal 22: 545-564.

[18] De Koning, A. & Muzyka, D. (1999), “Conceptualizing Opportunity Recognition as a Socio-cognitive Process,” Research Paper, Centre for Advanced Studies in Leadership, Stockholm.

[19] Kolb, D.A. (1984), Experiential Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

[20] Brigham, K.H. & DeCastro, J.O. (2003), “Entrepreneurial Fit: The Role of Cognitive Misfit,” in Katz, J.A. & Shepherd, D.A. (eds.), Cognitive Approaches to Entrepreneurship Research. Oxford: Elsevier, 37-71.

[21] Ward, T.B. (2004), “Cognition, Creativity, and Entrepreneurship,” Journal of Business Venturing 19(2): 173-188

[22] Gaglio, C.M., & Taub, E. (1992), “Entrepreneurs and Opportunity Recognition,” Frontiers of Entrepreneurial Research 136-147; and Lumpkin, G.T., Hills, G., & Shrader, R. (2004), “Opportunity Recognition,” in Welsch, H.P. (ed.), Entrepreneurship: The Way Ahead. New York: Routledge, 73-90.

[23] Grochow, J. (1973), “Cognitive Style as a Factor in the Design of Interactive Decision-support Systems,” PhD Diss., Sloan School of Management, MIT.

[24] Torrealba, D. (1972), “Convergent and Divergent Learning Styles,” Master Thesis, Sloan School of Management, MIT.

[25] Corbett, A.C. (2002), “Recognizing High-tech Opportunities: A Learning and Cognitive Approach,” Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 49-61.

[26] Hudson, L. (1966), Contrary Imaginations. Middlesex: Penguin Books.

[27] Bhave, M.P. (1994), “A Process Model of Entrepreneurial Venture Creation,” Journal of Business Venturing 9: 223-242; Gaglio, C.M., & Taub, E. (1992), “Entrepreneurs and Opportunity Recognition,” Frontiers of Entrepreneurial Research, 136-147; and Singh, R., Hills, G.E., Hybels, R.C., & Lumpkin, G.T. (1999), “Opportunity Recognition through Social Network Characteristics of Entrepreneurs,” Frontiers in Entrepreneurship Research, 228-241.

[28] Robinson, G., & Rose, M. (2006), A Leadership Paradox: Influencing Others by Defining Yourself, Revised Edition. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.

[29] Hunter, M. (2012), Opportunity, Strategy, & Entrepreneurship: A Meta-theory, Volume II. New York, Nova Science Publishers, 326.

[30] Robinson, G., & Rose, M. (2006), A Leadership Paradox: Influencing Others by Defining Yourself, Revised Edition. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, P. 115.

214. Hunter, M. (2012), Opportunity, Strategy, & Entrepreneurship: A Meta-theory, Volume II. New York, Nova Science Publishers, 326.

[31] . Keh, H.T., Foo, M.D., & Lim, B.C. (2002), “Opportunity Evaluation under Risky Conditions: The Cognitive Processes of Entrepreneurs,” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice Winter: 125-148.

[32] Manz, C.C. (1986), “Self-leadership: Toward an Expanded Theory of Self-influence Processes in Organizations,” The Academy of Management Review 11(3): 585-600; Neck, C.P., & Manz, C.C. (1992), “Thought Self-leadership: The Influence of Self-talk and Mental Imagery on Performance,” Journal of Organizational Behavior 13(7), 681-699; and Neck, C.P. & Manz, C.C. (1996), “Thought Self-leadership: The Impact of Mental Strategies Training on Employee Cognition, Behaviour, and Affect,” Journal of Organizational Behavior 17(5): 445-467.

[33] Hambrick, D.C. & Mason, P. A. (1984), “Upper Echelons: The Organization as a Reflection of Its Top Managers,” Academy of Management Review 9(2): 193-206; and Weick, K. E. (2005), “Organizing and the Process of Sense Making,” Organization Science 16(4): 409-421.

[34] Gupta, A. K., Smith, K. G., & Shalley, C. E. (2006), “The Interplay between Exploration and Exploitation,” Academy of Management Journal 49(4): 693-706.

[35] Prahalad, C. K. (2004), “The Blinders of Dominant Logic,” Long Range Planning 37: 171-179.

[36] Walsh, J. P. (1995), “Managerial and Organizational Cognition: Notes from a Trip Down Memory Lane,” Organization Science 6(3): 280-320.

[37] March, J. G. (1996), “Continuity and Change in Theories of Organizational Action,” Administrative Science Quarterly 41: 280.

[38] Schleicher, T. & Walker, M. (2010), “Bias in the Tone of Forward-looking Narrative,” Accounting and Business Research 40(3): 371-390.

[39] Gioia, G.A.C., & Chittipeddi, K. (1995), “Sensemaking and Sensegiving in Strategic Change Initiation,” Strategic Management Journal, 443-448.

[40] De Koning, A. (1999), Conceptualizing Opportunity Recognition as a Socio-cognitive Process. Stockholm: Centre for Advanced Studies in Leadership.

[41] Winston, R. (2010), Bad Ideas? An Arresting History of Our Inventions. London: Bantam Books, 514.

[42] Fletcher, D. E. (2006), “Entrepreneurial Processes and the Social Construction of Opportunity,” Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 18(5): 421-440.

[43] Teague, B. T. (2010), “A Narrative Analysis of Idea Initiation in the Republic of Tea,” in Gartner, W. (ed.), Entrepreneurial Narrative Theory: Ethnomethodology and Reflexivity. Clemson, SC: Clemson University Press, 186.

[44] Fleming, D. (2001), “Narrative Leadership: Using the Power of Stories,” Strategy & Leadership 29(4): 34-36.

[45] Gartner, W. (2007), “Entrepreneurial Narrative and a Science of Imagination,” Journal of Business Venturing 22: 624.


 
PUBLICATIONS:



      Samsara and the Organization - Murray Hunter

      Integrating the philosophy of Tawhid – an Islamic approach to organization. - Murray Hunter

      What’s with all the hype – a look at aspirational marketing - Murray Hunter

      Does Intrapreneurship exist in Asia? - Murray Hunter

      One Man, Multiple Inventions: The lessons and legacies of Thomas Edison - Murray Hunter

     People tend to start businesses for the wrong reasons - Murray Hunter

    
How emotions influence, how we see the world? - Murray Hunter

     How we create new ideas - Murray Hunter

     Where do entrepreneurial opportunities come from? - Murray Hunter

     The five types of thinking we use - Murray Hunter

     Evaluating Entrepreneurial Opportunities: What’s wrong with SWOT? - Murray Hunter

     How motivation really works - Murray Hunter

     The Evolution of Business Strategy - Murray Hunter

    
Not all opportunities are the same: A look at the four types of entrepreneurial opportunity -
Murray Hunter

     Do we have a creative intelligence? - Murray Hunter

     Imagination may be more important than knowledge: The eight types of imagination we use - Murray Hunter

    
The environment as a multi-dimensional system: Taking off your rose coloured glasses - Murray Hunter

     Generational Attitudes and Behaviour - Murray Hunter

     Groupthink may still be a hazard to your organization - Murray Hunter

  
  Perpetual Self conflict: Self awareness as a key to our ethical drive, personal mastery, and perception of entrepreneurial opportunities - Murray Hunter

     The Continuum of Psychotic Organisational Typologies - Murray Hunter

    
There is no such person as an entrepreneur, just a person who acts entrepreneurially - Murray Hunter

     Go Home, Occupy Movement!!-(The McFB– Was Ist Das?) - prof. dr. Anis Bajrektarevic

     Diplomatie préventive - Aucun siècle Asiatique sans l’institution pan-Asiatique - prof. dr. Anis Bajrektarevic

    
Democide Mass-Murder and the New World Order - Paul Adams


 





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prof. dr. Anis Bajrektarevic
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Go Home, Occupy Movement!! - (The McFB – Was Ist Das?) -
prof. dr. Anis Bajrektarevic




Diplomatie préventive - Aucun sičcle Asiatique sans l’institution pan-Asiatique - prof. dr. Anis Bajrektarevic\/span|



ADDENDUM – GREEN/POLICY PAPER: TOWARDS THE CREATION OF THE OSCE TASK FORCE ON (THE FUTURE OF) HUMAN CAPITAL
prof. dr. Anis Bajrektarevic




Gunboat Diplomacy in the South China Sea – Chinese strategic mistake -
Anis H. Bajrektarevic




Geopolitics of Quantum Buddhism: Our Pre-Hydrocarbon Tao Future
prof. dr. Anis Bajrektarevic




The Mexico-held G–20 voices its concerns over the situation in the EURO zone - Anis H. Bajrektarevic




Maasmechelen Village




Maasmechelen Village